Q.1. Draw and explain timing diagram for ‘Write operation’ in minimum mode of 8086.

Answer :

The timing diagram for write operation in minimum mode is shown in fig above:

  • When processor is ready to initiate the bus cycle, it applies a pulse to ALE during T1. Before the falling edge of ALE, the address, BHE, M/IO, DEN and DT/R must be stable i.e. DEN = high and DT/R = 0 for input or DT/R = 1 for output.
  • At the trailing edge of ALE, ICs 74LS373 or 8282 latches the address.
  • During T2 the address signals are disabled and S3-S7 ale available on AD16/S3-AD19/S6 and BHE/S7. Also DEN is lowered to enable transceiver.
  • In case of input operation, RD is activated during T2 and AD° to AD15 go in high impedance preparing for input.
  • If memory or I/O interface can perform the transfer immediately; there are no wait states and data is output on the bus during T3.
  • After the data is accepted by the processor, RD is raised high at the beginning of T4. Upon detecting this transition during T.4, the memory or I/O device will disable its data signals. For an output operation, processor applies WR = 0 and then the data on the data bus during T2. In T4, WR is raised high and data signals are disabled.
  • For either input or output operation, DEN is raised during 14 to disable the transceiver. Also M/I0 is set according to the next transfer at this time or during next T1 state. Thus length of bus cycle in 8086 is four clock cycle.
  • If the bus is to be inactive after completion of bus cycle, then the gap between the successive cycles is filled by ideal state clock cycles.
  • When the memory or I/O device is not able to respond quickly during transfer, wait states (Tw) are inserted between T3 and T4 by disabling the READY.

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